sex in Brussels next summer! – what else?
all welcome!


MEXICO CITY, MEXICO | AUG 31, 2018 – SEP 2, 2018

Repression and Defence

Repression and defence are arguably the central concepts in Freudian psychology, yet many mysteries remain. In this Congress, we want to dive into the unknown together and see how new insights from psychoanalysis, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy can improve our understanding of these core psychodynamic processes. Here are some of the issues we will address:

Most of us agree that repression is somehow related to memory. But how? And does therapeutic change really depend upon modifying a patient’s memory of the past?
Which aspects of repression and defence can be investigated in psychological experiments, and which occur only in the clinical situation?
What (conscious and unconscious) cognitive and affective factors contribute to repression and defence, and which neural mechanisms play a role?
At which developmental stage does repression start? And how does repression relate to other mechanisms of defence?
Repressed desires, conflicts, and trauma are central sources for the dynamic unconscious. But is repression fundamentally different from (conscious) suppression?

Speakers include

Cristina Alberini
Michael Anderson
Nikolai Axmacher
Ariane Bazan
Néstor Braunstein
Daniela Flores Mosri
Mark Solms
Oliver Turnbull
Maggie Zellner










      • London, 08.10.2015, First Psychodynamic Neuroscience Research Meeting of Autumn 2015 : « Failing inhibition in psychosis shows what repression might be at a brain level: what I learned from Hervé », Bazan, A. University College of London. Invited by K. Fotopoulou.
      • Boston, 25.07.2015,IPA (International Psychoanalytical Association) 49th Congress/ IPSO 23rd Conference, Axmacher, N., Bazan, A., Ouss, L. & Solms, M., “Towards a neural basis of repression?”; panel organized by A. Bazan, upon selection.
      • Amsterdam, 09-12.07.2015, 16th International Congress of Neuropsychoanalysis : « Plasticity and Repetition (and other topics) », debate: Fotopoulou, K., “This house believes that learning is the core mechanism of change in psychoanalysis”, arguments against: Ariane Bazan.
      • Amsterdam, 09-12.07.2015, 16th International Congress of Neuropsychoanalysis: « Plasticity and Repetition (and other topics) », Bazan, A., “Repetition compulsion and death drive”.
      • Tallinn, Estonia, 13-15.03.2015, symposium “Psychoanalysis in Our Time – Psychoanalysis and Science”, Tallinn University, Bazan, A., Detandt, S., “The Promising Failures of Neuroscience: Psychoanalysis at the Horizon”.
      • Tallinn, Estonia, 13-15.03.2015, symposium “Psychoanalysis in Our Time – Psychoanalysis and neuroscience / neuropsychoanalysis”, Tallinn University, Detandt, S., Bazan, A., “On the Physiology of Jouissance”.


      • Montreal,Canada, 16.09.2014, The Quebec English Branch of the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society, The department of psychiatry of the Jewish General Hospital and the McGill Program for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Psychiatry, Bazan, A. “Is Freud (still) dead? Cognitive and neuroscience research show the unconscious and repression in the brain”, invited by Daniel Frank.
      • New York, 25-26.07.2014, 15th International Congress of Neuropsychoanalysis : « Current Neuropsychoanalytic Research », debate: « This house believes that neuroscientific terms must never replace psychoanalytic ones », arguments for: Ariane Bazan and Richard J. Kessler, arguments against: Lisa Ouss and Nikolai Axmacher.
      • New York, 25-26.07.2014, 15th International Congress of Neuropsychoanalysis : « Current Neuropsychoanalytic Research » Clinical Symposium: « What does clinical work with neurological and non-neurological patients teach us about the brain – and vice versa»; Bazan, A. “Insights from psychosis clinics on the brain in repression – what I learned from Hervé”.
      • New York, 24.07.2014, 15th International Neuropsychoanalysis Congress: « Current Neuropsychoanalytic Research» : Bazan, A., « Introduction to psychoanalysis for neuroscientists. »
      • New York, U.S.A., 23-27.07.2014, 15th International Congress of Neuropsychoanalysis: « Current Neuropsychoanalytic Research », Detandt, S., Askari, S., Olyff, G., Bazan, A., “The parallel dichotomies of drive and affect in psychoanalysis, neurosciences and cognitive psychology”, poster.


      • France, Rennes, 21.11.2013, International Congress – Université de Rennes : « Le pari de l’inconscient : actualités de la recherche en psychopathologie». Bazan, A., « La neuropsychanalyse: Défi au regard de l’inconscient », invited by Prof. François Sauvagnat.
      • Ghent, Belgium, 08.11.2013, 6 th conference of the International Society for Psychoanalysis and Philosophy (ISPP): “Normativity and Contingency. Philosophical and Psychoanalytical  Perspectives.” Bazan,  A. president of the morning session: “Phylogenetic Scheme and Transcendental Field: Notes on Contingency and Normativity in Freud’s and Lacan’s Conception of Fantasy”, invited by Prof. Philippe Van Haute.
      • Cape Town, South  Africa, 23-25.08.2013, 14 th International Neuropsychoanalysis Congress: “Clinical Applications of Neuropsychoanalysis », Bazan, A. and Yeates, G., defending the motion “This house believes that neuroscientific findings have limited significance for the meaning-making task of clinical practice”, against Solms, M., and Yovell, Y., invitation by Profs. Katarina Fotopoulo and Mark Solms.
      • Ghent, 23.05.2013, Lecture series Critical Neuroscience. Ethics, Philosophy, Politics and Policies, discussion of Vittorio Gallese, “From mirror neurons to Embodied Simulation. A second-person approach to intersubjectivity”, invitation by Dr. Jan De Vos.
      • Ghent, 21.03.2013, Lecture series Critical Neuroscience. Ethics, Philosophy, Politics and Policies, Bazan, A., “The case of jouissance contra neural plasticity. Pleading mental causality in favor of an ethics of subjective liability”, invitation by Dr. Jan De Vos.




      • Brussels, Belgium, 28.05.2010, presentation at the annual conference of the “Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences”, Bazan, A., Winer, E.S., Kushwaha, R., Brakel, L.A.W., Snodgrass, M., Shevrin, H., « Unconscious inhibition in language processing, a subliminal priming study at the objective detection threshold », presentation.
      • New Orleans, Louisiane, EU, 20-22.05.2010, Society of Biological Psychiatry 2010 Annual Meeting, Shevrin, H., Snodgrass, M., Abelson, J., Brakel, L., Kushwaha, R., Briggs, H., Bazan, A., “Evidence for Unconscious, Perceptual Avoidance in Phobic Fear”, poster presented by James L. Abelson (A. Bazan not present).



      • London, United Kingdom, April 28th 2008, Seminar Series ‘From Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience to the Couch: Is there a Common Language?’: Conscious and Unconscious Processes, Data Blitz: Brief Interdisciplinary Research & Clinical Presentations Promoting Innovative Ideas. Bazan, A., Winer, E.S., Kushwaha, R., Brakel, L.A.W., Snodgrass, M. and Shevrin, H., ‘Brain and behavioral responses to unconscious ambiguity vary in function of defensivity – a subliminal priming/ERP study at the objective detection threshold’, presentation.
      • New Haven, Connecticut, US, 22.01.2008, The Whitney Humanities Center at the Yale University, Faculty Working Group, “Mind, Brain, Culture and Consciousness”, Bazan, A., ‘Freud’s Primary and Secondary Processes at the Interface of Psychoanalysis and Neurosciences’, presentation, invitation by Profs. Morton Reiser (†) and Elise Snyder.
      • New York, US, 17.01.2008, Winter Meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association 2008, Workshop, Discussion Group on the Research on the Relation of Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience, Bazan, A., “Freud’s Primary and Secondary Processes at the Interface of Psychoanalysis and Neurosciences”, presentation, invitation by Drs. Elise Snyder and Charles Fisher.



      • New York, US, 20.01.2007, Winter 2007 Meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association, research panel, Bazan, A., “Unconscious Language Dynamics: A Subliminal Priming Study”, invitation by Prof. Phil Wong.
      • Ghent, Belgium, 26.04.2007, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy and Literature, University of Ghent: Prof. Howard Shevrin (Michigan): “Brain frequencies versus brain modularity: which model fits best a psychodynamic approach of the mental apparatus: an empirical illustration”, workshop, followed by a presentation on 27.04.2007: “Psychoanalysis and psychiatric diagnostic.”.
      • Ghent, Belgium, 02.06.2007, Conference of the ’Inter-Associatif Européen de Psychanalyse’ organised by the ‘Gezelschap voor Psychoanalyse en Psychotherapie’ (GPP): Bazan, A., chair: ‘What do we need theory for ?’, invitation by Robert Flamant.
      • Beernem, Belgium, Psychiatric Centre Sint-Amandus, 06 & 19.06.2007, Seminar Continuing Education, Bazan, A., ‘Psychosis: mare’s nests and brainstorms’, session presented by the Department Clinical Psychology and 07.06.2007, Seminar LOK (psychiatrists), Bazan, A., ‘Psychosis: mare’s nests and brainstorms’, invitation by Dr. Luc Roelens.
      • Vienna, Austria, 22.07.2007, Research day of the 7th International Neuropsychoanalysis Conference: Bazan, A., De Kock, L., Van Draege, K., Brakel, L. A.W., Geerardyn, F. & Shevrin, H. (Belgium/USA): ‘Empirical evidence for primary process mentation in acute psychosis’, presentation.



          • Ghent, Belgium, 21.12.2005, Post-Academic Education Program ‘Phenomenology, Psychoanalysis and Neurosciences’, University of Ghent, Bazan, A., ‘Unconscious language dynamics and the primary process: an ERP study’, invitation by Prof. Van de Vijver.
          • Ghent, Belgium, 01.12.2005, University of Ghent, Post-Academic Education Program “Phenomenology, Psychoanalysis and Neurosciences”: workshop organised in collaboration with Gertrudis Van de Vijver and Filip Geerardyn: invitation by Howard Shevrin (Michigan), for a conference on “The Dynamic Unconscious”.
          • Ghent, Belgium, 30.11.2005, Department of Psychoanalysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, and Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy and Literature, University of Ghent: Prof. Howard Shevrin (Michigan): “The Dynamic Unconscious. An Experimental Research Program”, followed by a debate on 01.12.2005: “Experimental research in (neuro-) psychoanalysis: challenges and controversies”.
          • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 28.07.2005, 44th Congress of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA): Bazan, A., “Neuro-Psychoanalysis – An Introduction” (Course A85), presentation, in replacement of Prof. M. Solms, invitation by Dr. Robert Galatzer-Levy. 
          • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 27.07.2005, 6th International Neuro-Psychoanalysis Congress, Research Day: Bazan, A., Winer, S.E., Shevrin, H., Snodgrass, M., Brakel, L.A.W., ‘Unconscious Primary Process Language: an ERP study’, presentation.



          • Ghent, Belgium, 30.03.2003, International Workshop “Body Image and Body Schema. (Neuro)phenomenological, (Neuro)psychoanalytical and Neuroscientific Perspectives” at the University of Ghent: Bazan, A., ‘Some comments on the emotional and motor dynamics of language embodiment’, presentation, invitation by Dr. De Preester.


          • Stockholm, Sweden, 03.09.2002, 3rd International Neuro-Psychoanalysis Congress, Research Day: Bazan, A., Geerardyn, F., Knockaert, V., Van de Vijver, G., Van Bunder, D., ‘Role of the phonology in the neurophysiology of emotional language dynamics’, presentation.
          • Portland, Maine, USA, 24.08.2002, 1st International Conference of the New England Institute for Cognitive Science and Evolutionary Psychology on ‘Unconscious Cognition and Evolution’: Bazan, A., Geerardyn, F., Knockaert, V., Van Bunder, D., Van de Vijver, G., ‘Language as the source of human unconscious processes’, and Van Bunder, D., Knockaert, V., Bazan, A., Van de Vijver, G., Geerardyn, F., ‘Some remarks on the organization of human speech: the unconscious structured as a language’, presentations.




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